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    Framework.
    Rafters and joists form triangles that support and balance the weight of the roof.

    Decking.
    A base layer covering the rafter or trusses creates a sturdy foundation for shingles or other roofing material. In older homes, the decking usually is 3/4 inch planks nailed to the rafters. In newer construction, the decking typically is 1/2 inch exterior grade plywood (with asphalt shingles, roll roofing, slate and some tile fours) or spaced slats (with wood shakes or shingles, some tile, and metal panels).

    Covering.
    The first layer is the underlayment. Its job is to keep rain, snow, or ice from finding its way through the decking to the framing. Next comes flashing. At every interruption in the roofline - valleys, dormers, vents, chimneys and skylights - flashing directs surface water away from the decking and framework. Finally, comes the roofing material - shingles, shakes, tile, metal or rolled roofing.

    If you could look inside an exterior wall, you might be surprised at how little actually stands between you and the outside world. In new construction (below, left), walls (dinding rumah) usually have an exterior sheathing of rigid board insulation, the framing cavities are insulated with fiberglass bats, a plastic vapor barrier covers the insulation, which in turn is covered by finished drywall.

    In older construction (below, right), the exterior sheathing is made of wood planks; insulation - if there is any probably is loose fill cellulose, interior surfaces are made of lath and plaster.

    Walls (dinding rumah) in heated basements are often insulated with rigid board insulation installed between furring strips (a fancy name for 2 x 2 boards) attached to the masonry walls (dinding rumah). The insulation and furring strips are covered with a vapor barrier and then wallboard or paneling.

    A vapor barrier is any material that resists the flow of moisture, such as polyethylene film or aluminum foil. Also, some fiberglass insulation comes with a Kraft paper or foil facing that's intended as a vapor barrier.

    If you live in a cold climate, listen up. This is important: Every exterior wall - wood framed or masonry - should have a vapor barrier.

    In warm climates ( areas where the average January temperature is higher than 35 F), vapor barriers may or may not be required. Check with local building officials or a reputable contractor in your area.

    Vapor barriers keep moisture from getting into the walls (dinding rumah) and condensing on interior surfaces. Trapped moisture reduces the R-value (efficiency) of the insulation and can cause framing and sheathing to rot. Ploys, mold can from in damp walls (dinding rumah), a very unhealthy situation for everyone living in the house (rumah) - especially people who have mold allergies or respiratory problems.

    In unfinished walls (dinding rumah), you'll see a layer of polyethylene (look like clear plastic) over the insulation or a paper or foil facing on the insulation itself. In finished walls (dinding rumah), remove a switch plate or receptacle cover and look around; you may be able to see the edge of the barrier.

    If you have damp or moldy walls (dinding rumah), moldy insulation, or continually peeling paint on exterior walls (dinding rumah), get serious about checking out your vapor barrier. Get a contractor's help if you need it.

    Most of the major problems a house (rumah) can develop can be traced back to misdirected, condensing, or intruding water that is, water leaking from your pipes, water condensing from too humid indoor air, or water getting in from outside. In severe climates, freeze can cycles exaggerate water damage (and repair costs) exponentially - especially to framing and coverings.

    Not surprisingly, many repairs involve redirecting moisture and a whole lot of preventive maintenance is aimed at keeping water where it belongs in the first place.

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