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    Virtual Tour [2]


    Slab Foundations are most common in warm climates where deep frost footings aren't necessary. They're also used in areas with loose or sandy, soil to distribute the weight of a house over a broad area in order to keep it from sinking.

    Slab foundation don't need much maintenance - very little can go wrong. Water is the main enemy since slab houses are raised only a few inches off the ground. The most effective protection is to make sure the landscape slopes away from the house, directing runoff water away from the foundation.

    Pier or grade beam foundation
    with a pier foundation, the house rests on beams that are supported by columns called piers. The piers may be made of natural stone, brick, concrete, or even wood. These foundations are common in floodplains and other high water areas, since such foundations can raise the house up off the ground and don't require much excavation. Grade beam foundations, a newer version of pier foundation, are often used on hillside homes in the West. In this design, poured concrete columns are connected to an underground beam.

    With a pier foundation, the space under the house is often hidden by an apron. The apron typically has an opening so you can get under the house to check on thins from time to time. It's important to remove leaves, trash and other debris that could trap moisture or shelter pests. You also need to make sure the insulation between the floor joists is in place and dry.

    Pole foundations.
    Like pier foundations, pole foundations raise the house off the ground, but with this design the support columns - made of poured concrete and steel or wood, are directly connected to each story of the house. pole foundations are earthquake resistant, well suited to steep slopes, and appropriate in areas where flash flooding is a possibility.

    Next stop on our tour; the framing. The framing is the wood 9or steel) that shapes the walls, floors, ceilings and roof of a house. It's a skeleton that includes these parts:
    - Post support the beams, which add strength to the foundation.
    - The still plate anchors the framing to the foundation.
    - Joists form the floors and ceilings.
    - Studs form the walls.
    - Header bridge the openings for doors and windows.
    - Load bearing walls transfer the weight of the house to the beam and foundation.
    - The ridge board and rafters support the roof.

    Now that we've got the basics down, let's take a closer look at wall framing. First, the studs: In exterior walls, typically they are 2 x 6s or 2 x 4s. Studs are 16 inches apart, measured from the center of one to the center of the next. Any opening wider than 16 inches, a door or window for example, requires a header to transfer the weight to nearby framing.

    Exterior walls are load bearing and so are all interior walls aligned with the means. Any interior walls that runs parallel to the floor and ceiling joists is a non load bearing or partition, wall. Fixing cracks in partition walls is just a matter of surface repair, but substantial cracks in load bearing walls need to be watched carefully for signs of underlying problems with the support structure. Before we leave the framing, let's take a look at the roof, a system composed of three parts: the framework, decking and covering.
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